HOME WIRING PDF

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WIRING COLOR GUIDE c. WHITE WIRE nfutral. BLACK WIRE tor. • im n RED WIRE hot. BARE WIRE ground wire. How the Home Electrical System. The AWG number identifies the size of the conductors the smaller the number the larger the diameter (AWG – in, AWG 18 – in). • NEC defines. An electrical circuit is a continuous loop. Household circuits carry electricity Electrical engineering guides and research studies Format: PDF. Size: MB .


Home Wiring Pdf

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This guide is designed to help you install residential wiring safely and in accordance to the standards set by the 13th edition of the. Manitoba Electrical Code. Simple Electrical Wiring Diagrams | Basic Light Switch Diagram - (pdf, 42kb) Light Switch Diagram Electrical Wiring Diagram, Basic Electrical Wiring, Electrical . House Wiring Circuit Diagram Pdf Home Design Ideas. Home Electrical Wiring Circuit Diagram House Plans Residential Wiring, Home Electrical Wiring.

Sockets are on 32A ring circuits in most house installations. These use a ring of cable ie a loop , so that at the CU 2 cables are connected to the MCB instead of 1. An unlimited number of sockets may be connected on each ring. One ring circuit per floor is a fairly common arrangement, but by no means the only option. Larger houses generally have more rings. Its also common to have a ring dedicated just for sockets in the kitchen since that is where you will find many of the highest power consuming appliances in a modern house.

Spurs are permitted, but sockets should be included in the ring rather than spurred wherever practical. Spurring is best only used for later additions to circuits. Spurring sockets prevents the easy later addition of more sockets in some positions, as a spur may not be spurred off a spur. Spurs also prevent the addition of more sockets at existing spurred positions, whereas a practically unlimited number of sockets can be added where a socket is in the ring.

Bear in mind the number of sockets wanted has risen greatly over the years, and can only be expected to rise further. Radial socket circuits are used less often. These use a single cable from CU to socket, then a single cable to the next socket along the line etc. Radials use more copper on most circuits, though less cable on physically long narrow shaped circuits.

Connection faults have greater consequences than with ring circuits. Minimum and desirable numbers of sockets recommended per room are given. Recommended numbers are inevitably a matter of opinion, and are only recommended as a starting point for consideration.

Radial circuits are used for lighting. There is one lighting circuit on each lighting MCB. Lighting circuits are usually on a 6A MCB or 5A fuse , though 10A can be used with some extra restrictions now removed in the 17th edition of the wiring regs for large circuits.

However if the area served is large, more 5A or 6A circuits would in most cases be preferable. Filament lamp failures can trip MCBs , so fuses have an advantage over MCBs for lighting circuits, as they rarely nuisance trip on bulb failure. The power feed cable may go to either the switch or the bulbholder.

If it goes to the bulbholder, this is called loop-in wiring, and the ceiling rose a junction box with a downward facing cable outlet then uses four sets of connections instead of 3, the extra one being a switched live. With loop-in wiring, the cable from the ceiling rose to the switch has 3 conductors, namely earth , unswitched live and switched live. Regs conformance requires that brown sleeving be fitted over the neutral coloured conductor at each end of the switch cable since it is being used as a live.

All cable colours are as expected except for the switched live. So beware, if you take down a rose without paying attention to which wire is which, and you re-connect all the blacks or blues together, your fuse or MCB will trip. The permanent lives and switched lives of the circuit use the single core and earth cable type Y. This run starts from the MCB and loops between the lightswitches to provide a permanent live and earth to the lightswitches.

Another length of Y is then used from the lightswitch to the light fitting to provide a switched live and earth at the light fitting.

The neutral cable is a double sheathed cable Y with a blue inner sheath that runs from the CU neutral busbar and from light fitting to light fitting there will only be one neutral at the end of the circuit.

It makes it easier to put light fittings up as there are less cables to mess with at the fitting. In addition to the common Loop In scheme shown above, other systems are also often used. These are Switch loop through which makes all the connections at a switch.

There is also junction box wiring which is basically the same as the ceiling rose system except there is no local connection to a lamp - so its better suited to remote lamps like wall lights. All combinations of these can exist on the same circuit if necessary:. Two way switching means having two or more switches in different locations to control one lamp. They are wired so that operation of either switch will control the light s. In some older properties typically wired in or before the mid s , its not uncommon to find lighting circuits without an earth wire.

Three Phase Circuit Magnetic Starter Thermal Overload Relay Single phase circuit Two piano round plug 5Amp PVC Three piano round plug Ceiling Rose 5 Amp Three Way circular base Single Way circular base Flat file 2.

Half round file Connecting screw driver 3. Grip vice Inside circlip opener 4. Triangular file Clamp 5. Square file Electric Hand drill machine 6. Round file Venire chipper 7. Hack Saw frame with blade Nail plugging pliers 8. Flat chisel 9. File brush Wooden chisel Helmet Triangular chipper Wooden saw Claw hammer Neon tester Ball peen hammer Earth tester Open and spanner Allen key Combination spanner Safety belt Adjustable spanner Hand Gloves Hand grinding machine Hand drill machine Safety goggles Drift punch Centre punch Pin punch Scissors Divider Soldering iron Try Square Sucker Outside chipper Plastic Hammer or soft Steel punch Cross peen hammer Crimping pliers Cable cutter Wire striper Insulation cutter Combination pliers Long pliers Outside micrometer Twist drill pit Flat screw driver Splice Joints 2.

Married Joints 3. Tape Joints 4. Turn Joints 5. Splice Joints 6.

Britannia Joints 7. Tape Joint get 8. Bell hanger Joints 9. Britannia tape Joints Double Cross Joints Pig tail Joints Western union joints 6 Electrical Surface wiring Electrical wiring is generally refers to insulated conductor used to carry current and associated device.

This article describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building wiring 1. Cleat wiring 2. Cross wiring 3. Conduit wiring 4. Batten wiring 5. Channel wiring 6. PVC 4 core flexible round cable 4 x 70 x 0. PVC 3 single strand double insulated cable 5.

PVC single core single strand cable 18 SWG "PVC Polyvinyl chloride, more correctly but unusually poly vinyl chloride , Commonly abbreviated PVC is the third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

Home Wiring Guide Pdf

PVC comes in two basic forms: The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards such as bank or membership cards.

It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber. Pure poly vinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.

Electrical tape or insulating tape is a type of pressure-sensitive tape used to insulate electrical wires and other materials that conduct electricity. It can be made of many plastics, but vinyl is most popular, as it stretches well and gives an effective and long lasting insulation.

Crimping pliers Cable cutter Wire striper Insulation cutter Combination pliers Long pliers Outside micrometer Twist drill pit Flat screw driver Splice Joints 2. Married Joints 3. Tape Joints 4. Turn Joints 5. Splice Joints 6. Britannia Joints 7. Tape Joint get 8. Bell hanger Joints 9.

Britannia tape Joints Double Cross Joints Pig tail Joints Western union joints 6 Electrical Surface wiring Electrical wiring is generally refers to insulated conductor used to carry current and associated device. This article describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building wiring 1.

Cleat wiring 2. Cross wiring 3. Conduit wiring 4. Batten wiring 5.

Understanding Electrical Circuits

Channel wiring 6. PVC 4 core flexible round cable 4 x 70 x 0. PVC 3 single strand double insulated cable 5. PVC single core single strand cable 18 SWG "PVC Polyvinyl chloride, more correctly but unusually poly vinyl chloride , Commonly abbreviated PVC is the third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards such as bank or membership cards.

It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber. Pure poly vinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid.

It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran. Electrical tape or insulating tape is a type of pressure-sensitive tape used to insulate electrical wires and other materials that conduct electricity. It can be made of many plastics, but vinyl is most popular, as it stretches well and gives an effective and long lasting insulation. Puntland,Somalia 20 by Abdiaziz Hassan 8 Switches Switches: In electrical and electronic system, a switch is a device, which can make or break an electrical circuit or we can say that switch is a controlling device, which interrupt the flow of current or direct the flow of current in another direction.

Almost all the electrical and electronics systems contain at least one switch, which is used to make the device ON or OFF. In addition, a switch is used to control the circuit operation and user may able to activate or deactivate the whole or certain parts of the connected circuit.

Generally, Switches can be categories as.

There are many types of Mechanical switches and they are also being categories on the basis of power handling capacity. The contact material is chosen by keeping in mind that the metal oxides, which produced due to corrosion, are mostly insulator and layers of such oxides on the switch plates will hinder the normal operation of the switch.

When a user press the button of the switch, then the plates of the switch connect with each other and the current starts to flow and vice versa. We can send two different signals to same pin by using this switch. Because of this functionality, this switch is also called selector switch. This switch is mostly used, where we have to break both ground and lines at the same time. This switch has two common pins and four signal pins. Total four different combinations of singles can be applied to the input pins of this switch.

Puntland,Somalia 23 by Abdiaziz Hassan 2P6T Two Pole, Six Throw It is a type of the changeover switch with a common COM which may be connected to six lines with a second two pole switch, which controlling and the operation of the switch is same. What is Intermediate switch, its construction and how it works? There are four terminals in intermediate switch by which it changes the flowing of current from one circuit to another circuit fig1. The four terminals of intermediate switch is shown in fig 1 label as A, B, C, D.

In some cases, the terminal contacts of switch is meet terminal A with terminal C and terminal B meet with terminal D as shown in fig 1 a.

Puntland,Somalia 24 by Abdiaziz Hassan In other cases , the terminal contacts of switch is meet terminal A with terminal B and terminal C meet with terminal D as shown in fig 1 b. When the knob of the switch is UP, then the vertical contacts are meeting i. AC and BD as shown in fig 1a.

AB and CD as shown in fig 1b. In Fig 2, a lamp is controlled from three different places by using two, 2-way switches and one intermediate switch. Puntland,Somalia 25 by Abdiaziz Hassan In fig 3, a lamp is controlled from six different places by using two, 2-way switches and four intermediate switches. A lamp is controlled from six different places by using two, 2-way and four intermediate switches.

Key Point: You can control a lamp from many different places by adding more intermediate switches.

Electrical and Electronic Switches: The Above discussed switches are Mechanical switches and they are user manually operated. Now, we are going to discuss Electrical switches, which are faster in response than mechanical switches and can be switched automatically by an electronic circuit like microcontroller or microprocessor.

They can also be categories on the basis of current and voltage rating like mechanical switches. Puntland,Somalia 26 by Abdiaziz Hassan There are the most widely used electronic switches.

Electrical House Wiring Pdf

Transistor:- Transistor can be used in different mode of operation but we are going to discuss the transistor as a switch. If we apply a large amount of current at the base of the transistor keeping in mind the maximum allowed current for the this type of transistor then we can run this transistor in deep saturation mode 2. Mosfets:- Mosfet can also be used for switching purpose at high frequencies.

They can operate at Mega hertz frequencies. Mostly, Mosfets used for PWM pulse width modulation. Mosfets have three terminals. Relays:- A Relay is an electromechanical device, which consists of an electromagnet. When a current is flowing through the coil, it becomes an electromagnet and this electromagnet can be used for switching purposes.

Their contacts can fall into any category, e.

Puntland,Somalia 27 by Abdiaziz Hassan 9 Electrical Measurements Voltage sources Batteries and other voltage sources have internal resistance. When they do work moving charges against the electric force, some of this work is already converted to thermal energy in the battery. The amount of energy lost to thermal energy in the battery is Ir, where I is the current flowing in the circuit and r is the internal resistance of the battery.

The voltage across the battery terminals therefore drops from the nominal value V to V - Ir when a current is flowing in the circuit. In a circuit diagram we represent the internal resistance of the battery by a resistor r connected in series with the emf. A voltmeter is a device used to measure voltages, while an ammeter measures currents. Meters are either analog or digital devices. Analog meters show the output on a scale with a needle, while digital devices produce a digital readout.

Analog voltmeters and ammeters are both based on a device called a galvanometer. Digital voltmeters and ammeters generally determine the voltage drop across a known resistor and then convert the result to a digital value for display. Voltmeters Resistors in parallel have the same voltage across them.

If you want to measure the voltage across a circuit element, such as a resistor, you place the voltmeter in parallel with the resistor.

The voltmeter is shown in a circuit diagram as a V in a circle, and it acts as another resistor.

To prevent the voltmeter from changing the current in the circuit and therefore the voltage across the resistor , The voltmeter must have a resistance much larger than that of the resistor. If the resistance of the voltmeter is large, only a negligible current flows through the meter.

Puntland,Somalia 28 by Abdiaziz Hassan Ammeters Resistors in series have the same current flowing through them. An ammeter must be placed in series with a resistor to measure the current through the resistor.The amount of energy lost to thermal energy in the battery is Ir, where I is the current flowing in the circuit and r is the internal resistance of the battery. Outside chipper Connect one calling bell controlled with two push switch by parallel and difference watt of bulbs AC?

Devices of measuring of Electricity…………… A voltmeter is a device used to measure voltages, while an ammeter measures currents. Clamp 5. If it goes to the bulbholder, this is called loop-in wiring, and the ceiling rose a junction box with a downward facing cable outlet then uses four sets of connections instead of 3, the extra one being a switched live.