DARK MONEY BOOK

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NATIONAL BESTSELLER ONE OF THE NEW YORK TIMES 10 BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR Who are the immensely wealthy right-wing ideologues shaping the. Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right () is a non-fiction book written by the American investigative. Get personalized recommendations and earn points toward a free book! Praise for Jane Mayer’s Dark Money. “With such turmoil on the right wing of American politics, reading Dark Money is like reading the first chapter of what may be a great political page-turner.”.


Dark Money Book

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Dark Money book. Read reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Why is America living in an age of profound economic inequality? Why,.. . Dark Money” argues that the Koch brothers and a small number of When you download an independently reviewed book through our site, we. New Yorker writer Jane Mayer examines the origins, rise and dominance of a billionaire class to whom money is no object when it comes to.

He's rationalized this and created an ideology that's perfectly self-serving. Donald Trump, Mayer said, "certainly wasn't the candidate they had in mind.

Most of the families profiled in "Dark Money" made their fortunes in the gas and oil industry; they fiercely oppose any action to address climate change. They're not dumb guys. So how can it be that they really truly don't see what the scientific world tells them on this subject? Instead, they've sided with their bottom line on this issue. And I think there's a huge pushback.

Bright and eager to get out from under his overbearing old-world father, Fred once ran away to live with the Comanches as a boy. Later, he crossed the country for college, transferring from Rice in Texas to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. There, he earned a degree in chemical engineering and joined the boxing team. Early photographs show him as a tall, formally dressed young man with glasses, a tuft of unruly curls, and a self-confident, defiant expression. In , Fred, who was an inveterate tinkerer, invented an improved process for extracting gasoline from crude oil.

But as he would later tell his sons bitterly and often, America''s major oil companies regarded him as a business threat and shut him out of the industry, suing him and his customers in for patent infringement. Koch regarded the monopolistic patents invoked by the major oil companies as anticompetitive and unfair.

The fight appears to be an early version of the Kochs'' later opposition to "corporate cronyism" in which they contend that the government and big business collaborate unfairly.

In Fred Koch''s eye, he was an outsider fighting a corrupt system. He correctly suspected that his opponents bribed at least one presiding judge, an incompetent lush who left the case in the hands of a crooked clerk. At the time, the Russians supplied England with fuel, which led to the Russians seeking his expertise as they set up their own oil refineries after the Bolshevik Revolution.

At first, according to family lore, Koch tore up the telegram from the Soviet Union asking for his help. He said he didn''t want to work for Communists and didn''t trust them to pay him.

But after securing an agreement to get paid in advance, he overcame his philosophical reservations. In , his company, then called Winkler-Koch, began training Russian engineers and helping Stalin''s regime set up fifteen modern oil refineries under the first of Stalin''s five-year plans.

The program was a success, forming the backbone of the future Russian petroleum industry. Few had waged a more relentless or more effective assault on American's belief in government. He and his brother had built and financed a private political machine that had helped cripple a twice elected Democratic president and begun to supplant the Republican Party.

Educational institutions and think tanks all over the country promoted his world view. Doubling as a talent pipeline, a growing fleet of non-profit groups mobilized public opinion behind his agenda.

The groups trained candidates and provided the technological and financial assistance necessary to run state-of-the-art campaigns. The money they could put behind their chosen candidates was seemingly limitless. Congressmen, senators, and presidential hopefuls now flocked to their secret seminars like supplicants eager to please them in hopes of earning their support.

Interesting story about what happened to Mayer when her subjects found out she was on to them: Here's a report of political spending for nearly 1 billion before one vote was cast: Link to a list of groups created and sustained by Koch Family Foundations View all 7 comments.

Our government has been hijacked by billionaires who are only interested in making themselves money.

Dark Money

This book should be required reading for anyone living in America today to understand our political climate, and for anyone outside of America who lives in a representative democracy. Charles and David Koch have funneled hundreds of millions of dollars into redefining American politics. The basic amount alone - on whatever side of the aisle - should stagger you. It would stagger any American voter Our government has been hijacked by billionaires who are only interested in making themselves money.

It would stagger any American voter in any previous election cycle: The Kochs are the engine of a small group of extremely wealthy libertarian activists who use their billions of dollars to prop up business practice that hurt millions of Americans. The organizations that they fund and have founded are far-right libertarian think tanks that masquerade as independent, non-partisan machines: Their front groups demonized the American government, casting it as the enemy rather than the democratic representative of its citizens.

Cumulatively, the many-tentacled ideological machine they built came to be known as the Kochtopus. This is the same story that we all know.

The owners of these companies - the Kochs, the Scaifes, the Coors, the Olins - benefit from massive government military contracts, lack of regulation on environmental effects, and low tax rates. The government subsidizes projects; in turn, these owners decry governmental involvement while accepting enormous handouts and funneling that money back into projects that call for "limited" government - limited government that cuts welfare for the poor while supporting unnecessary military expense.

Citizens United allows corporations to funnel untraceable money into politics; the unfathomable wealth of the Kochs, built on pollution and extortion, allows them to download down-ballot races in contested states and move our entire political discourse to the right; and we then blame Democrats and "politics" for our inability to compromise or use basic principles of governance to move forward as a country. Charles and David Koch single-handedly turned our country's stance on climate change; regulations enjoyed bipartisan support during the presidency of George H.

Bush, and now no one in the Republican party will admit the climate change is even scientifically accurate. When you read this, just remember: This was more than John McCain spent on his entire presidential bid. It's worth noting that Jane Mayer was harassed and followed by private investigators after reporting her initial story on the Koch brothers in the New Yorker.

View all 5 comments. Dec 17, howl of minerva rated it it was amazing Shelves: Nothing in America makes sense except in the light of moneyed interests.

Essential reading. If you don't read it, for the love of Christ at least read about it. Mayer's original New Yorker article from http: View all 3 comments. I'm sorry.

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I bailed. I simply felt as though I was suffocating under the piles of Dark Money, the angles to obstruct President Obama politically and these greedy billionaires who don't give two hoots about anyone except their fortunes and the relatives who will inherit.

The author names names, lists companies, organizations which hide behind fronts as philanthropic efforts but are just tax shelters oh, trumped? And all of the poor people clapped But if they make nothing, that is zero tax paid already and the rich are investing less in what keeps a country healthy: The wealthy don't want taxation.

Trump pulled that wool over an electorate's eyes I couldn't read any more. If there was ever a dystopian prediction, it was this book. Trump is the living embodiment. So I bailed. From the book. I don't know if the USA political system can float through the flimflam infiltrating its "democracy" by those determined to turn the country into an oligarchy like Russia, but I couldn't read anymore while watching and hearing Tweets that show one rich guy thinks this show is all about him.

No rating. American readers - this book is for you. I wish you good luck. View all 20 comments. There book terrified me.

I have had problems sleeping reading this book and my family urged me to quit reading it because it was affecting me so. Yet, this book explains everything that is going on in politics and our country today. I finally understand why things are happening to a degree and what once made no sense now makes sense. What I can't fully comprehend is why so many people still vote republican when it is making government a branch of a few billionaires in the country.

People are vot There book terrified me. People are voting against their own interests. I still don't understand that part of the equation. It is some slick advertising, for sure. Dark money begins with the Koch family and the start they get with their money. As children, Charles and David, who run the company today, were raised of a nanny from Germany who was a Nazi. She was brutal and the boys were abused. The father was harsh on his children.

We see the rise of the company and the angry that is built up in the Koch brothers because people tried to set limits on them. Who likes limits right? Still, there is a point in life where you simply can't do anything you want just because you want to. These people think you can.

It came from the plan back in the 70s these brother's launched. The EPA fined the Koch's hard for practices where the were affecting public health. There were dumping hundreds of pounds of mercury into rivers and people were getting sick. This is just one of the many offenses they were fined for. The brothers believe that as a company, they should have the right to do as they please and if people get sick, that's their problem form living below their plant.

As a company why do they have to worry about clean water, or air. They don't care because all they care about it money and being in control. The Koch's are libertarian. It is basically a view of anarchy where there is no government. Corporations rule and they can do anything they want. They call themselves conservative, but this is not true.

The true conservatives thought these views of libertarians were extreme back then and no one gave their views a second thought. This with the smack down of the EPA set off the Koch machine. From this point in the 80s, they decided to control the way people think and the way government works. The scary part about this book shows that they have largely succeeded. The republican party has been taken over by extremist and the party doesn't even look like the Reagan party looked.

They control many middle school and high school textbooks and what is printed there.

They teach their ideology from more than universities in the country - all the ivy league. They have been working the past 10 years to control all 3 houses of government and I think it will happen.

They are brilliant at making it look like it is grassroots driven, but behind every movement there is Koch money. The grassroots people can't see it. All the organizers are from the Koch machine. They have branches within branches within branches. They are in everything they can influence people. They have moved a whole party to the far right. Their big win and what gave them the whole game was citizens united.

That changed everything. The machine that funnels Dark money into the systems has almost become more money than the 2 major parties combined in the last election. Republicans have lost control of their party.

Boehner went to David Koch's office to plead him to let them save the country from financial ruin in As Boehner was leaving office, he even mentions how out of control it is and his party is lost.

The Koch's believe in no taxes. They shouldn't have to pay and income tax. They believe that poor people don't need an education and they want to shut down public education. Only the wealthy need an education. They don't believe in any safety net. They package their message as wellbeing and they think that if poor people are poor with no assistance they will work harder to make it.

This is greed that is about to kill a nation. I fear that it is the downfall of our country. They will walk all over anyone else who tries to get in their way. They want to abolish the minimum wage so they can pay employees pennies. They want to be able to pollute and sell goods that might not be safe for us. They have no interest in the wellbeing of the rest of the country. We are on our own. They are all about greed.

I kept wondering why Trump cozied up to Russia and North Korea. This is the kind of government they want. Why be in NATO where they have rules and regulations on corporate power. It all makes sense now what they are doing. It will not help the rest of us.

We will lose the weekend and sweetshops will come back to the country. There was a point in the 80s where Charles is quoted as saying he thinks children should work in factories. I mean, they have no limits. There are no limits to what they want. They want all the money and all the power. Jane Mayer does an amazing job following the money.

She traces all their dealings and how they shelled the money around and she has the references and the proof all in this book. She has done a very detailed job of tracing this family and their work behind the scenes of the last 40 years.

Now, everyone knows the Koch's, but people still don't know the extent of what they have done and how they have taken control of power in this country. They are the power behind the throne right now. They are pulling the strings. It was Charles who demanded that Republicans do nothing but obstruct Obama. They would not give an inch. He held a meeting with them. Jane does speak of Soros and she does speak a little about the fact that the democrats run on money too.

Both sides do, but there is nothing like the Koch-tapus or the Koch machine. It is in a category all its own. No one is spending money like they are. They have been systematic and they give money to any public figure who uses their talking points like Glen Beck and Rush Limbaugh.

They get money to use those talking points. It is so pervasive and it feels so overwhelming. It almost feels like we don't have a chance.

Jane Mayer discusses her book 'Dark Money' and its ongoing relevance

How can average people fight Billions and billions of dollars? In , their machine, which is the Kochs and their donors, spent a record something million dollars on that campaign and this isn't all the money cause some of it can't be traced.

The democrats and republicans spent a combined 1 billion dollars roughly on that election. They almost outspent the 2 major parties and this is the money that could be traced. Democrat or republican, we all as a nation should be upset that a few billionaires have their hands on the government. We are in scary times and I pray from the future of our country. I hope we don't give in to greed. I hope we can continue to be a country that cares for our citizenry. Taking care of the poor and healing the sick was the heart of Jesus's ministry.

I don't see how a nation that considers itself Christian can go down this road. It certainly won't be Christian any longer if it does so, maybe in name only. This book, I'm sure, is not perfect, but this book has sources and proof.

There is a money trail and their are meetings notes and quotes from people. Look at what is happening in todays world and you can see the truth is written here. The Koch's pushed an agenda and people were willing to accept it. Our nation is divided and with what is going on, I don't see any way to fix it.

The Kochs will not stop pushing their agenda and fighting. This is a mess we are in and the losers are the American people.

This book is important. I know most things in here have been reported. I'm still glad I read this and now I have to find a way to sleep. I guess I need a plan of action. How can I be part of healing the country. I don't want to fight; discuss, sure. The pendulum has swung. The economy collapsed in and the Koch's blame the government for the collapse when it was the banks doing dirty deals that did it.

When their are no checks on the market, the market will crash. Everything has an up and a down. We will all suffer together either way. I know I'm not very positive after reading this book. I do have a little tiny hope that the house and senate can be won back by the dems this election. It is only another battle in a very long battle where the other side is better equipped.

This book makes me sad. We have so much right now and because they want more, we might lose it all. None of this mentions having a clean world for people to enjoy and live in. We all share the land.

Having clean air is important for people to breathe. Clean water is what makes life possible. Once our water supply is dirtied, there is no way to clean it quickly. Our environment is our most important gift as a nation. My personal view is that corporations are all about money and they don't care about people. Time and again, they have to be forced to do the right thing, otherwise they use people like we are resources.

History bears this out. The only tool, the only way we as normal people can protect ourselves from them is the government. They are the thing to keep them in check and keep them from eating the rest of us. I'm sure people disagree, but that is my view. Well, if you read all this - congratulations. You know what I think.

You know many of my fears and probably many of my weaknesses too. View all 12 comments. Mar 07, Max rated it it was amazing Shelves: Charles and David Koch grew up rich in Wichita Kansas. Their father Fred had built a fortune overseeing oil refinery development for both Stalin and Hitler and establishing a thriving oil refining business in the US. He learned to despise the communists but he admired the German work ethic. He became a strong libertarian supporting the John Birch Society.

He was a strict disciplinarian to his four sons not hesitating to beat them. After bitter sibling infighting, Charles and David took control of the business with Charles calling the shots. He ran it with no respect for the law or anybody who stood in his way. Koch Industries routinely ignored safety regulations resulting in many large oil spills, mercury contamination, injury to and the death of personnel from chemical exposure.

Koch Industries also defrauded Indian tribes deliberately under measuring the oil it took from tribal lands. In a jury found Koch Industries guilty of both negligence and malice for knowingly using a corroding pipeline that exploded killing two people.

In Koch Industries was listed as one of the top ten air polluters in the country. But they were profitable.

Dark Money review: Nazi oil, the Koch brothers and a rightwing revolution

That road to success was paved by a myriad of front organizations used to distribute Koch money for political influence. Charles and David funded organizations, usually tax deductible, to fight for their interests, even though the stated purpose would be couched in more lofty terms. For example, in Charles began financing and taking control of the Cato Institute.

The Koch brothers invested heavily in programs they could control at universities. The center even held that smog was good because it prevented skin cancer, an idea that was put forth in a winning case against the Clean Air Act in a DC Circuit Court in All the judges had been on a fancy junket provided by a Koch front organization.

The Supreme Court unanimously overturned the decision. Beyond think tanks, academia, legal and advocacy groups the Kochs wanted to directly influence politicians. Kansans Bob Dole and Sam Brownback were early beneficiaries. The Koch brothers quickly realized the need to raise hundreds of millions of dollars. To make this more palatable for them and their network of donors, trusts and non-profits were used to make the money tax deductible and difficult to trace.

To push Koch causes they used private foundations such as the American Enterprise Institute and the Heritage Foundation. One, Americans for Prosperity, aggressively attacked the Obama stimulus program. Americans for Prosperity, the Heritage Foundation and the Cato Institute actively supplied Tea Party protesters with speakers, talking points, press releases and transportation.

FEC Supreme Court decision and Scott Brown victory in the Massachusetts senate race in January , the Kochtopus was both energized and primed to unload torrents of cash to defeat Democrats in the elections. It focused on pivotal state legislature races to gain control of the redistricting that would occur following the census.

The program succeeded beyond the organizers wildest expectations ensuring heavily gerrymandered districts and Republican congressional majorities. Nesting such organizations allows even this requirement to be circumvented. Not bad considering they felt Obama was hurting their business. The Koch machine impact on the and elections was so profound that the Kochtopus held more influence over Republican politicians than did the RNC. Not surprisingly their policies are right in line with the Kochs.

ALEC writes proposed bills that politicians can adopt. Thus the Koch network was getting its unvarnished policies put directly into action. Through ALEC the oil and gas industry proposed some seventy bills to limit the development of renewable energy.

The private prison industry also has a large ALEC footprint. This is just one more example of the organizational shell games Mayer details that enable the Kochs and their friends to take tax deductions for undermining the democratic process. Franklin and Madison and Jefferson and George C. Marshall and Heartland and Heritage. It all sounds so wonderful until you see what it is. Reading Dark Money helps you spot Koch network activities in the daily news. The Koch network unleashed an immediate attack seeing it as far too liberal.

The attack is being conducted by the same organizations mentioned by Mayer making it obvious who is behind it.

With the Kochtopus swinging into action, we should expect the proposal to be changed significantly. Mayer has changed the way I take in news. No longer will I listen to a politician without wondering who is paying for him or her.

Nor will I assume that groups like the Tea Party are spontaneous or grass roots. These groups are seeded, nurtured and grown by media savvy political operatives armed with sophisticated demographic data bases.

Exploiting their extreme wealth the Kochs and allies have defined the agenda of the Republican Party. The Citizens United decision turned the powerful Koch influence into a dominant one. Dark Money is an important book and a must read for those who want to understand politics in America today.

View all 11 comments. Jun 14, Donald Owens II rated it did not like it. This is a page newspaper article by a liberal with an agenda, who seems to honestly believe only those on the right have agendas or corruption. I would highly recommend this book as a companion text for logic students, showcasing many logical fallacies, particularly ad hominem, attacking the motive, and genetic fallacies, as well as her unabashed propaganda techniques throughout.

For instance, she consistently refers to teaching conservative principles as "indoctrination", describes conserva This is a page newspaper article by a liberal with an agenda, who seems to honestly believe only those on the right have agendas or corruption.

For instance, she consistently refers to teaching conservative principles as "indoctrination", describes conservatives with denigrating labels like "ilk", "cronies", and "operatives", liberal beliefs as "mainstream" and fiscal conservatism as "fringe". I have no love for either party, I condemn deceit and I am quite willing to believe any man corrupt.

But this author is so dishonest in her spinning and propaganda techniques, whether willfully or ignorantly, I don't know why I would believe anything she says.

Never, in these many repetitive pages, does she actually engage the ideas she opposes. Rather, she mocks them or attacks the men who hold them. Neither does she give reasoned defenses for her own assumptions, like 'all information should be public' or 'minority opinions are wrong unless they're liberal ". If I were lobbying against murder, Mayer would call me corrupt because I stand to benefit from living in a safer country.

Unless I were a liberal. The depth of the undermining of democracy by a very small number of very wealthy people is astonishing. One can look at the state of Congress and know that this is not hyperbole. Citizens united enabled these wealthy beyond the wildest imagination folks to download politicians, particularly the GOP because these donors are Libertarian as in Greed in ways that "the common man" cannot understand.

These folks seek not just to control the government, but to shape the thoughts of the populo The depth of the undermining of democracy by a very small number of very wealthy people is astonishing. These folks seek not just to control the government, but to shape the thoughts of the populous through philanthropy. Fund college departments that teach their philosophy specifically. They have invaded law schools and environmental science. It's pretty insidious. They have these shadow non profit organizations that spring up with Orwellian names like Americans for Prosperity, etc.

They funnel millions into these organizations to help influence the minds of the public. I wish this book was overwrought an overblown, but it is evident by the election of Donald Trump and a large Republican Congress in the last two years that it is not. How else do we end up with an intransigent Congress that passes tax cuts that help a very specific group but want to get rid of health and social security.

An administration that has the richest cabinet in history enacting things that enrich them and make it less safe for everyone both in physical terms climate, guns and in health terms healthcare, polluting the environment, loosening food regulations, cuts to federal agencies in place to protect people etc. All so that these billionaires can pass their billions onto their children without it being taxed fairly. Scary times Almost 4. View all 13 comments. Jul 27, Tim rated it it was amazing Shelves: As a Brit who had never heard of the Koch brothers — to my knowledge not once have they ever been mentioned on a news or current affairs programme in the UK — this was a startling and terrifying read.

Now and again I had the feeling the US might, in the not too distant future, become the dystopian society we often read about in novels and see in films where the many are surfs ruled by an elite few corporations.

This will certainly be the case if the individuals this book is about get their way. And, scarily, they are getting their way. The central premise though is something everyone should know about.

That a group of American billionaires, driven by pure self-interest and the will to power, is investing millions of tax free dollars in trying and succeeding to undermine the political system in the USA.

Almost all of these individuals have earned their vast wealth by damaging the environment. No surprise then that top of their agenda is deregulating all government law relating to climate change. Koch Industries was the number one producer of toxic waste in the United States most years.

They are also vehemently opposed to all government public spending, including health care and unemployment benefit.

They want to do away with tax, except for the poor. Essentially they want to do away with government; they want to rule themselves.

Interestingly this book was finished before Trump came to power except it tells us towards the end that Trump disassociated himself from the group of donors over which the Koch brothers preside.

Pulling out of the Paris climate change agreement and dismantling Obamacare for example. Obama ended up their pal, largely because they bullied and undermined him constantly through the Senate, which says a lot about the disappointment a lot of us felt in the somewhat banal nature of his presidency. These guys basically rendered Obama impotent. Feb 01, Sebastien rated it it was amazing. Jane Mayer mostly focuses on the Kochs, while also highlighting other oligarchic players like the Devos and their role in downloading influence and crafting policy often at the cost of the public interest.

I'm not going to lie. This was rather a frustrating read for me. It's hard not to get upset at the current paradigm and situation of our political system and how badly it has been subverted by powerful moneyed interests. So y Yowee. So yeah, there were times reading this would build me up into a tizzy and I just wanted to throw the book across the room in toddler rage.

But I couldn't. Because it was an audiobook. So that made me even more angry because I was thwarted in my ability to participate in angry book throwing to vent my frustrations. Life is not fair. And no I'm not willing to throw my phone how I listen to audiobooks against the wall. Although I could have now that I think about it Our political system has been usurped by these interests, the will of the people is constantly subverted by small oligarchic elites who distort policy and download politicians to further their narrow self-serving agendas.

But of course this elite dresses up their policies and political philosophy like Ayn Randian brand of economic libertarianism as moral, beneficial to everyone, while downplaying the costs to society and the amount of power and money they stand to gain from these self-serving philosophies and policies.

They camoflauge their deregulation privatization of every last atom on this earth philosophy under the guise and code of "freedom" and "liberty. Which always cracks me up because the phrase "free market" is a marketing gimmick, there is no such thing as "free market. Businesses cannot create this framework on their own, they are coupled and beholden to gov to make sure there are avenues for exchange.

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Anyhow, Kochs and their ilk are masters of PR, they spend a heck of a lot of money on propaganda to push their agenda and sell their platform. The public is much more economically progressive than this small elite, but given their outsized influence and PR budget they can shift things to the extreme right. Anyways, this was a wonderful book, detailed nuts and bolts analysis of how this usurpation has taken place, nicely cataloguing the mechanics and tactics of this elite.

Also a great bio and history of the Kochs. Interesting point was how the Koch family fortune really started with deals with the totalitarian governments of Stalin and the Nazis ironic given their love of libertarianism and small gov.

Charles and David Koch are a weird duality, extremely authoritarian figures who champion libertarianism because it benefits them obviously.

What is scary are the measures and tools people like the Kochs will turn to to crush dissent and destroy opposition, whether it be politicians, journalists, etc who challenge them. They have resorted to some very dirty and scary tactics. Powerful moneyed interests have always played a role in government and politics, the question is degree of influence. And right now it is beyond extreme. The current paradigm is fomenting distrust and anger at government across the political spectrum, and I'd say justifiably so.

Aug 07, Jan Philipzig rated it it was amazing Shelves: Investigative journalism at its best! Jane Mayer's meticulously researched book takes a close look at a crucially important topic that is largely being ignored by the mainstream media: Essential reading for anybody who has been wondering what the FUCK is going on. Feb 02, Mal Warwick rated it it was amazing Shelves: The Koch brothers, Charles and David, get a lot of attention from political observers and, increasingly, from the public.

No wonder. The fortune they possess together is greater than those of Bill Gates, Carlos Slim, Warren Buffet, and other private individuals who are often characterized as the richest people in the world. A total of some individuals constitute the network.David Koch ran for vice president on the Libertarian ticket in , but when the campaign was over, he resolved never to seek public office again.

Davis''s plan was to ship crude petroleum to Germany, refine it, and then sell it to the German military. Their core beliefs—that taxes are a form of tyranny; that government oversight of business is an assault on freedom—are sincerely held.

And the other is the personalities behind this movement. It does this through application of billions of dollars to programs promoting the redrawing of voting districts to minimize and eliminate, where possible, the chances that candidates with any respect for democracy might be elected to public office. Of course it is possible that photodynamics will not do the trick.

Rather than obsessing over the influence of the super-rich, the critics should reflect on their own failure to project an alternative. Excited about the Nazi conquest of France, this anti-Poppins spit-spotted back to Germany to join in the celebrations.

Of course it will be impossible to prosecute them, as they have gained considerable control of the courts that were once upon a time a barrier to the dismissal of the national interest by the uber-wealthy.