A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOK In English most nouns form their plural by adding '-s' to the singular form In Modern German Grammar Workbook. Basic German: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessible reference grammar and related exercises in a single volume. It introduces German people. Basic German: A Grammar and Workbook is an excellent learning material for independent study with emphasis on German grammar. It is a beginner's course .
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Published: May 01, PDF created by Hagindaz · Österreich German language grammar rules useful to the student working through any of the . to, but are not included in, the vocabulary presented in the basic and advanced lessons. 6. März BASIC GERMAN:A GRAMMAR AND WORKBOOKBasic German: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessiblereference grammar and. Basic German: A Grammar and Workbook comprises an accessible reference grammar and related DownloadPDF MB Read online.
Open the window, please. Hast Du morgen Zeit? Are you free tomorrow? Ich kann morgen nicht kommen, weil ich nach Manchester fahre. Morgen muss ich nach Manchester fahren. Tomorrow I have to go to Manchester. Ich arbeite. I am working.
Ich arbeite bei Harrods. I work at Harrods. The past in English is expressed either by the present perfect tense whensomething happened recently or has a connection to the present: German is simpler: download a good dictionary.
It not only gives you a list of translations butalso tells you how to pronounce unfamiliar words and gives you importantgrammatical information, for example whether a verb takes a certain case orwhat the plural is for a noun. Throughout the book, we tell you how to workwith dictionaries to get this kind of information and how it is relevant.
Checklist 1 Where do you use capital letters in German? A verb usually describes what a person or any other subject is doing: You would say: Verb FormationGerman has more endings for verbs in the present tense than English.
Youtake the stem of a verb and then add the required ending. Here they are in more detail. Ich wohne in Frankfurt. I live in Frankfurt. Ich spiele Gitarre. I play the guitar.
Ifyou are addressing one person, the informal address is du and the formal isSie always with an initial capital letter.
The endings are -st and -en: Woher kommst du? Where do you come from? Where do you live? He plays tennis. Woher kommt sie? Where does she come from? Es schneit. It is snowing. We live in Cologne. Wir lernen Deutsch. We learn German. Wo wohnt ihr? What are you doing here?
You have to add -en: Und woher kommen sie? And where do they come from? Jutta und Bernd — was machen sie? Jutta and Bernd — what are they doing?
Unit 2 9One present tense in GermanAs we have seen, in German there is only one present tense, which corre-sponds both to the simple and to the continous present in English: Er trinkt Bier. He drinks beer. She plays football.
ExceptionsAlthough the majority of verbs in German follow the regular patterndescribed above, there are a number of exceptions irregular forms: But before you explore the mysteries of German verb endings further, makesure that you have digested all the information from this Unit.
Exercise 2. Completethe gaps with the appropriate verb forms. As you have probably noticed, Alex was addressed informally.
Rewrite thequestions in the formal mode using the Sie form. Anna komm aus Wien. Sie geh sehr gern ins Restaurant. Unit 2 Ann und Tina spiel gern Badminton. Use a the du and b the Sie form. Use a the du, b the Sie-form and c the ihr form. Checklist 1 Can you form the stem of a German verb?
There is also a group of irregular verbs wherethere are changes in the stem of the verb. These verbs will be discussed in Unit 4. Spelling variations — an overviewStem endings in -d or -tThere are some German verbs where the stem ends in -d or -t. This is why an e is put beforethese endings: Du atmest sehr heftig. Herr Maier arbeitet bei Siemens. Mr Maier works for Siemens. Es regnet schon wieder! Das Buch kostet 5 Euro. The book costs 5 euros. Ihr redet zu viel. Reist du wieder nach Italien?
Are you travelling to Italy again? Susi likes kissing. For a few verbs where the stem ends in x, z or tz the same pattern applies: Here are examples in some frequently usedverbs: Liest du gern Harry Potter?
Do you like reading Harry Potter? He is watching a football match. Sie isst gern Pizza.
She likes eating pizza. Sprichst du Deutsch? Do you speak German? Looking out for patternsThese changes apply only to a limited number of verbs. It is best to learnthese verbs by heart. There are also certain patterns which can help youpredict how a verb changes. They are: Unit 3 15Examples: Any moment now it will fall down!
He wears a new T-shirt. Changes from e to iYou have seen that sprechen and essen are two prominent verbs which changetheir vowel from e to i. Other verbs which follow this pattern are: Er hilft Frau Maier. He helps Frau Maier. Are you meeting Angelika today? Er wirft den Ball zu Beckham. He throws the ball to Beckham. The verb nehmen also follows the e to i pattern, but it has greater spellingvariations.
Here are all forms: He is taking a hot bath. Changes from e to ieSome verbs such as sehen and lesen, where the e sound is pronounced long,change their vowel e into ie: Er sieht Jutta nicht.
Sie empfiehlt Tee. She recommends tea.
Where to look for irregular formsAll verbs with a vowel change are irregular verbs. But beware: Other irregular verbsThere are also two other groups of verb forms which do not conform to theregular pattern in the present tense: Exercise 3. Place a tick against the oneswhich change their vowel in the present tense and a cross against the oneswhich do not. Use a verb list to checkyour answers. Use this information to write a short portrait of him.
They arequite irregular in German, as in English. Different patternsAs explained in Unit 3, irregular verbs in German tend to change theirstem vowel. Haben and sein — an overviewHere is an overview of the verb forms for haben and sein: The endings for ich, wir, ihr and sie are regular: Examples Ich habe viel zu tun.
I have a lot to do. Claus hat eine Schwester. Claus has one sister. Haben Sie Wechselgeld? Do you have change?
Intermediate German: A Grammar and Workbook
Sie haben ein neues Auto. They have a new car. Use of habenHaben is an important verb which you will be using a lot.
Ich habe gesungen. I have sung. Useful phrasesHere are a few useful phrases with haben: Hunger haben to be hungry Ich habe Hunger. Durst haben to be thirsty Er hat Durst. Langeweile haben to be bored Wir haben Langeweile. Kopfschmerzen haben to have a headache Sie hat Kopfschmerzen. Ich bin aus Deutschland. Sind Sie Herr Schuhmacher?
Are you Mr Schuhmacher? Er ist Amerikaner. He is an American. Sie ist Lehrerin. She is a teacher. Es ist schwer. Apologies, we are late. Seid Ihr verheiratet? Are you married? And there is, of course Shakespeare: To be or not to be, that is the question. In German this would be: Sein oder Nicht-Sein. Das ist die Frage. Use of seinLike haben, sein is an important verb and you will be using it a lot. It is usedto form tenses and other grammatical forms.
You cannot,for instance, use sein to form a tense similar to the English: This tense does not exist in German. There is only one present tense: Exercise 4. Ich eine Schwester. Was Carsten von Beruf? Unit 4 23 7 They are students. These are verbs which are made up of two parts: For example: Important separable verbsSeparable verbs are quite frequent in German. Here are some of the mostimportant ones: Mr Nolte rings his wife.
Corinna goes out every day. The children watch television every evening. He goes shopping in the supermarket. The meeting takes place on Monday. This may not necessarily be at the end ofthe sentence. I get up and then I have breakfast. Herr Carlsen Mr Carlsen is watching sieht fern, aber seine Kinder lesen.
But that does not work all the time, so meanings of separable verbs need to belearned. They include be-, er-, ge-and ver-. Er bezahlt mit seiner Kreditkarte. He pays with his credit card. Sie verkauft ihren alten Computer. She is selling her old computer.
More about separable verbsAs a beginner you will probably use separable verbs most often as explainedabove. However, separable verbs occur also in the imperative, in combinationwith modal verbs, and in the perfect and future tense.
See Units 6 and 20—23for more information. Exercise 5. Put a tick against them. Er jeden Tag. The imperative is used for giving orders or instructing people to do things. Go home!
Open your books! Close the window! Whether you are addressing only one person or several, it does not change. Four different forms in GermanThe imperative in German is a bit more complicated.
Schenke Heiner, Seago Karen. Basic German: A Grammar and Workbook
German also distinguishes between the formal and informal modeof address in the imperative. Kommen Sie! Warten Sie. Unit 6 31 anfangen Fang an. Fangen Sie an. Fangt an. The formalimperative is the same in the singular and plural. Addressing one person informally du form The informal singular or du form is used with one person with whom you arequite familiar — children, family or close friends.
FormationYou form the imperative by using the stem of the verb without an ending: Come here! Drink less.
German teaching resources
Irregular formsVerbs which have some variation in their present tense also have slight vari-ations for the imperative: Breathe faster. Talk quietly. Read the newspaper. They simply use the stem to form the imperative: Drive on the right! Wear the red dress. Join us! Haben and seinHaben and sein behave like regular verbs.
Use the stem of the verb: Be patient. Be careful. Addressing one person formally Sie form Use the formal singular or Sie form when you address one person you are notintimate with. FormationSimply use the present-tense Sie form. Unlike the informal, the formalimperative includes the personal pronoun Sie. You can tell that it is animperative because the Sie comes after the verb: Please come. Separable verbsSeparable verbs split up again: Please start.
Addressing more than one person informally ihr form The informal plural is used when you are addressing at least two people or agroup of people you are familiar with — children, family or friends. Unit 6 33FormationThe informal plural is formed exactly like the second person plural ihr: Wait for us.
Addressing more than one person formally Sie form If you address more than one person in a formal way, you use the Sie pluralform. Please enter. Thisstructure is very similar to English.
Exclamation marksIn written German, you often put an exclamation mark after the commandform. This puts more emphasis on what is being said. Frequent useThe imperative is used quite frequently in German. It is not impolite or rudeto do so. English tends to use more elaborate structures, often in question Exercise 6. Sie langsamer, bitte. Put the following inthe command form, using the du form.
Unit 6 35Exercise 6. Interrogative Where do you come from? Woher kommen Sie? Wo wohnen Sie? Yes or no question Have you got brothers and sisters?
Haben Sie Geschwister? Is this your mobile? Ist das Ihr Handy? A Grammar and Workbook is the ideal reference and practice book for beginners, as well as for students with some knowledge of the language.
Search all titles. Search all titles Search all collections. Your Account Logout. Basic German. Edition 2nd Edition. First Published Imprint Routledge. DOI https: Pages pages. Export Citation. Get Citation.Basic tips and patterns Learning German is often perceived as difficult.
How does this compare to English? In fact, many German textbooks are available online as free downloadable PDFs they usually open in the browser but can be saved to your disk. Valiant Boys: Christine Villa.
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